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## Wednesday, December 14, 2011

### The Pareto Chart Help in Statistics

The Pareto Chart is based on The Pareto principles of Italian Economist Vilfredo Pareto in 19th centaury. The Pareto principles state that the most effects are the result of relatively of few causes that is, 80 % of effects come from 20 % of the possible causes. Materials, raw materials and operators can be taken as example.

The Pareto Chart: The Pareto chart can also be known as, the Pareto diagram. There can be two types of Pareto Charts such as, a weighted Pareto chart or a comparative Pareto Chart. A Pareto chart is a special bar graph, where the lengths are represented by frequency or cost, time or money that are arranged with the longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right side. Thus, a chart visually exhibits the relative importance of problems or conditions.

Today in the subject of Statistics, Pareto Chart is of a great importance.

Here are the few steps involved in constructing a Pareto Chart:

· The problem to be analyzed is defined and to identify the different potential causes.

· Decide which criterion to use when comparing the possible causes such as, how often the different causes occur, their consequences or costs.

· Define the time interval during which data will be collected and carry out the data collection for the selected criterion.

· Place the causes from left to right on the horizontal axis of the chart, in descending relative importance. Rectangle lines are drawn to represent the heights.

· It is necessary to mark the data value on the left vertical axis and the percentage value on the right and a curve of cumulative is drawn along the top edges of the rectangles.

An illustration is given below to explain the use of a Pareto Chart:

This illustration explains how a Pareto Chart works. Many studios around the world make televisions commercials. One studio specialized in shooting ads starring cats. Lately, many factors took place for the delay of the commercial such as, lack of equipment, technical problems with audio and video, rework of scripts and misbehaving cats.

Causes of Cat distress Time lost due to the cause Total time lost due to the cause

Not been fed 4, 3, 5, 2, 5, 3 22

Not been cuddled 3, 3, 5, 3 14

Studio too cold 9, 2, 4, 6, 4, 5 30

Too much noise 20, 15, 35, 20, 9, 16 115

Smell of previous cat still present 41, 68, 39, 60, 29, 52, 19, 8 316

Surface to sit/lie on not appealing 2, 4, 1 7

The above given details can also be explained with a graphical example.

Time lost (Minutes) Cumulative % time lost

## Tuesday, December 13, 2011

### Tax effect on Supply and Demand Curve Help

In the subject of Economics, Supply and Demand play an important role. In Economics Tax effect on Supply and Demand can be significant. Taxes on goods and services can determine their cost and in turn their demand and supply.

Definition of Tax effect:

The primary reasons for any tax is to raise income or revenue from tax payers for the taxing authority as, to impose economic burden on those tax payers to alter the distribution or allocation of resources in the affected markets. By changing the distribution of resources that is the quantities produced and consumed, where a tax can also affect the economic efficiency with which the resources are employed. As a result, the analysis and consequences of tax consists of revenue, resource allocation, income distribution and economic efficiency. In case, if a tax is raised on a particular market, the direct effects can be examined in that market. Whereas, it’s indirect effects can cause an issue to other related markets.

The effect of Tax on a good:

Tax on a good is added to the marginal cost of seller of the goods. An illustration can explain the shift supply and demand curve. \$1 of tax on one gallon diesel fuel will change the supply curve due to the amount of tax. The shifts in the supply curve, the equilibrium of price and quantity will also change because of tax. Eventually the impact on quantity and price will depend on the price elasticity’s of demand and supply.

In the above illustrated figure shows elasticity of demand and supply determine the impact of the tax. Here, the curve shifts upwards due to the amount of the tax. So, the equilibrium quantity falls and the equilibrium prices rises because of the tax. The decrease in the equilibrium of quantity creates a loss of consumer surplus and also producers’ surplus, which is known as deadweight loss from the tax. The size of the deadweight loss and the relative size of the impact on the price and quantity are varied. As, a result the supply curve and the demand curve have different price elasticity.

## Thursday, October 27, 2011

### Concept of Profitability of a Firm

When a business is started, an investment is made into the firm in areas such as machinery, land, inventory and other assets. By investing in these assets, the business wants to produce a value, a product or a service to sell it to the end users for a profit.

When we look at the financial side of the business and its activities, we can understand that the assets of the firm are put on the right hand side and the liabilities are put on the left hand side. The assets and liabilities must match in figures. When we look closely at the assets and liabilities, we can see that assets include machinery, land and buildings, inventory, patents, trademarks, investments, debtors, etc.

On the other hand, if we look at the liabilities side of the balance sheet, we can find share capital, long term liabilities such as bank loans, term loans, debentures and short term liabilities or current liabilities such as creditors, bills payable, expenses to be paid, etc. This is the capital structure of a firm.

The firm, in order to make profits, the firm must create more cash flow than it uses. In other words, the cash coming in from the various activities must be more than the money invested by the firm. This increase in the cash flow over a period of time is called profit, which is usually calculated over one year, half year or a quarter of a year.

In order to generate more profits, the firm can take up what is called cost reduction. In cost reduction, by using new machinery, or new ways of production, the firm tries to reduce the cost of production to the extent possible. Cost reduction is considered to be one of the best techniques for profit maximization.

Another way that firms can increase their profits is through producing in bulk quantities. When produced in bulk quantities, the firm will experience a decreased cost on individual product produced. So, the decrease in cost of production without the proportional decrease in price will increase the profit of the firm.

In order that cost reduction and increased production takes place, a firm must utilize highly economic ways of production such as utilization of efficient techniques in production and procurement of materials in bulk from suppliers, etc. All these techniques are known to decrease the cost of production and increase the profitability of the firm.

### Electromagnetism help in Physics

Electromagnetism is one of the fundamental phenomenon in nature. It is responsible for almost all the phenomena in our daily life. Electromagnetism spans both electric fields and magnetic fields. When observed individually, electricity and magnetism behave differently and when unified, we can observe that both are interdependent on each other and they cannot be separated from each other.

In order to fully understand Electromagnetism, we have to look at the four laws that govern electricity and magnetism. These are Gauss’s laws in Electrostatics, Gauss’s law in Magnetism, Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. These laws were combined by James Clerk Maxwell in the year 1864 to give a complete set of relation and connection between both the forces of electricity and magnetism.

Gauss’s law in Electrostatics

The electric flux through any closed surface is proportional to the enclosed electric charge.

Take an example of an electric field, a plane surface area and a normal unit vector at an angle in co-ordination with the electric field, then the resultant electric flux is considered as a scalar product. This defines electric flux as volt multiplied by meter.

Gauss’s law in Magnetism

The magnetic field has divergence equal to that of zero.

Gauss’s law can be applied to a magnetic flux through a closed surface. As magnetic field lines are looped in circles, The magnetic field lines are all looped for all closed surfaces. Hence a closed surface exhibits zero magnetic flux.

Ampere’s law

The line integral of magnetic field intensity H about any closed path is exactly equal to the net current enclosed by that path.

The only dependant in Ampere’s law is the current that is flowing through the wire and not the diameter of the wire. The magnetic field is dependant on the current that is enclosed in the loop of the wire.

The induced electromotive force (EMF) in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit.

The law states that independent of the change in the induced magnetic force, voltage will be generated. This can be either the change in the magnetic field or by a magnet moving toward or away from the coil of wire or moving the coil toward or away from the magnetic field will produce voltage.

These four laws are primary to the functioning of the modern electric system. Ampere’s law is useful in the production and maintenance of transformers. Faraday’s law is useful in the production of power. Without these laws, the concept of power production and power distribution would not have been possible.

## Saturday, October 15, 2011

### Communication in Business Assignment Help

One of the biggest mysteries about humans is their evolution to speak and communicate effectively. No other animal in the entire world can communicate as strongly as humans.

The science behind communication can be very puzzling when we look at communication at the very grass root level. But nevertheless, communication plays a very important role in our daily as well as in the most important turns in our lives.

Communication is defined as the process of giving, receiving information or ideas by writing, speech or visual means, so that the message communicated is completely understood by the recipients.

The key to effective communication is to guarantee that the information which is passed on is understood by the recipient, stimulating them to take appropriate action or affecting the way the recipient thinks in some way.

Most of the business organizations have understood that effective communication is the key to ensure the success of the organization at all the levels. Some of the benefits that accrue to the organization for effective communication include

• The power of decision making and problem solving increases
• Productivity of the organization increases
• The workflow or the process or the performance of the organization can be streamlined
• The professional image of the organization is enhanced
• Effective communication helps in maintaining sound business relationship with business clients.
• Positive and successful response to the organization is assured.

Today communication is more essential than ever before because of the changes that are taking place in organizations

• Advancement of Technology: With the advancement of technology, technologically advanced and easy to use communication devices are being developed. With the help of these devices communication has become a very easy task across large distances.
• Global Communications: Many businesses are going global thanks to the introduction of new and improved technologies. Many multinational corporations are operating from overseas and many national companies are seeking business in foreign nations. For all these things to happen, effective communication is very essential.
• The Age of Information: The advent of internet has brought a great revolution in the exchange of information from one part of the world to another part of the world. One can receive huge amounts of data through the internet today in seemingly less time.
• Teamwork is today’s Mantra: Long gone are the days of a person working alone. Today, team work is an important feature in not only large corporations but also in medium and small organizations. The productivity of a team player is generally high when compared to a person working alone. The reason is not only the added hands but also the added brains which help in thinking out new, efficient and effective ways to work better.

With the above features and advantages it is very clear that communication plays a major role in today’s business world.

## Friday, October 14, 2011

### International Entrepreneurship Assignment Help

Entrepreneurship can be defined as a process where in opportunities that were not explored earlier are explored are identified and exploited as part of a business process. Entrepreneurship has a great role to play in the development of business organizations. Most of the successful business organizations today were established because the visionaries could observe a potential which other were not able to perceive. Those visions have given rise to what is called as great business opportunities that they have been exploiting.

International Entrepreneurship:

International Entrepreneurship can be defined as a process where by the business process adopts innovative, proactive and exhibits risk-taking behavior. The risk-taking behavior is one of the most important and featured characteristics in an International Entrepreneurship. Higher risks are taken where there is a great uncertainty in the happening of an event. But when the event does happen, the returns will be very high. So, for earning great returns, entrepreneurs are ready to take great risks.

An entrepreneur starts his/her life as an SME or Small or Medium Enterprise. Small or medium enterprises are characterized by the number of employees working in the organization. Usually, a concern is considered to a small or a medium enterprise when the total number of employees are less than 500.

The significance of small and medium enterprises cannot be ignored in today’s global business. In fact, every year many number of SMEs are entering into many fields promoting their business globally. Some of the industries include import and export of goods and services, education, research, business process outsourcing, knowledge process outsourcing, market research, etc. Today, small and medium-scale enterprises are generating more employment than large corporate organizations. People are willing to work in small and medium-sized enterprises. Some people are even trying establish their own enterprises.

In many countries, the socio-political and economic environment plays a major role in encouraging or discouraging a small or a medium-scale business. The framework in a country such as the formalities, hindrances on funds allocation, the tax laws and the bottlenecks in the particular industry play a major role in the development or destruction of small business. In some countries the traditional and conservative attitudes, prejudices and misconceptions of the people also play a major role in the discouragement of small businesses. These conservative attitudes, misconceptions and prejudices narrow down the observation of a person resulting in not grabbing a huge potential or an opportunity in hand.

Apart from cultural aspects, economic aspects such as total lack of or under-availability of resources and lack of capabilities determine to a great extent of the success of the business.

But, some entrepreneurs survive and triumph even in the negative scenarios. Some of the determinants for their success include

• Innovation: Innovation is the biggest factors for any entrepreneur. There are so many businesses coming up. But, the most innovative among them will survive. Innovation acts like a shield in the cut-throat competition. Businesses which do not innovate quickly will not be able to survive in the cut-throat competition.
• Availability of adequate finances: Finance today, is another, big handicaps for any business. Availability of cheap finance is a promise for the business to bring in more resources, more minds and hands in action.

### Constructivism Assignment Help

Constructivism is a learning theory that perceives that people acquire knowledge through their experiences, interaction with the outside world and their ideas of the world around them. The theory got wider appreciation through the work of Jean Piaget in the early 20th century. Hence, he is considered as the founder of Constructivism. The theory of Constructivism is a part of epistemology which is a branch of philosophy which deals with how knowledge is acquired.

The theory has helped in developing ways of finding out how a person’s knowledge in various subjects is acquired and how it is applied in various instances. This theory is much recognized in the field of psychology and in the field of teaching. In the field of teaching it has a greater relevance because it can help teachers in finding out the best ways to teach their students.

Social Constructivism

Social Constructivism is a sociological theory that assumes that within a social group, knowledge is constructed or developed. This is regarded as the driving force behind small and indigenous cultures which share the same kind of beliefs and follow the same traditions. Social Constructivism is one of the major concepts in educational psychology where in constructivism is studied along with behaviorism and social learning in child development.

Personal Constructivism

Personal Constructivism believes that people organize their experiences so that they can understand and understand the flow of their day to day life. The proponents of the theory argue that people devise various ways or hypotheses to understand themselves and the people around them in their own limited sense of the world. It is further argued that personal constructivism has a greater role to play in interpersonal communication as well.

It has been found that people with complex personal constructs have better social perception than people with simple or less complex personal constructs. People with complex constructs because they can make more sophisticated distinctions, they are considered and have also known to be better communicators. The perception of an individual is shaped by the culture, family, social groups and education. These practices have known to shape the perception of a person.

## Monday, October 10, 2011

### Classification of Traction in Nursing

Traction is static in position that provides a form of immobilization. Traction can be continuous and intermittent. Continuous traction is maintained all time for example, traction on an unrepaired fracture. Intermittent traction means it is either applied for short periods of time and for example, intermittent cervical traction or the traction which can be released for short periods of time.

Traction is used as running or balanced suspension traction. Running traction can be applied to a body part with a pull in one direction or along one plane. The only counter traction. It can be used in conjunction with skin or skeletal traction and also keeps the fractured area immobile when the patient moves.

Traction can be classified as manual or mechanical by the way it is applied to the patient’s body. Mechanical traction is also divided into skin and skeletal traction. Plaster and brace are the two other types of traction that are used in specific situations.

Here are some of the forms of the forms of Traction that are given below:

• Manual Traction: Manual traction can be performed by a person’s hand exerting a pulling force. It is utilized to reduce fractures and dislocation and also helps to apply a steady pull while mechanical traction is released for readjustment or during a cast is applied. Manual traction should be done with a smooth, firm grip as sudden jerky motions of the can cause extreme pain. Manual traction cannot be used easily as it is restricted to specific orders.
• Skin Traction: Skin traction can be directly attached to the patient’s skin to disable a body part continuously or intermittently. The direct application of pulling force of patient’s skin and soft tissues can be effected by using adhesive or nonadhesive cast, a boot, a belt or a halter.
• Skeletal Traction: Skeleton traction can be attached directly to the patient’s skeletal system to disable or immobilize a body part. The direct application of pulling force to the patient’s skeletal system may be accomplished by attaching pins, screws, wires and tongs. Skeletal traction allows greater traction time and heavier weights than does skin traction.
• Plaster Traction: Plaster traction is skeletal reaction applied by incorporating the ends of pins or wires in a cast that maintains a continuous pulling force. For example, when a short arm cast with skeletal traction on the thumb is used for correction of a first metacarpal fracture.
• Brace Traction: Brace traction employs a brace to exert a pull on a portion of the body, as in the case of hyperextension braces or long leg braces for correction of leg alignment deformities due to fractures of the distal portion of the femur.

### Java Script Example For Beginners

Java Script With An Example:Creating a timing event in an infinite loop

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### Java Script Example Help

Java Script Example: Creating a Timing event in an infinite loop with a stop button

### Java Script Example Explained

Java Script Example: Creating a Clock with a Timing Event

### Java Script: An Introduction

Java Script is one of the most pervasive languages found on the internet and World Wide Web. Java Script is useful in making web pages more interactive. The pages can be made to react to the actions of the users in the form of special effects, both visual and otherwise.

Java Script began as a joint effort between Netscape Communications Corporation and Sun Microsystems beginning in the year 1995. Java Script is an object-based, client-side scripting language that can be used to make web pages more dynamic.

Object-based:

Java Script can make use of items called objects. The use of objects is different in Java Script because, here the objects are not class based. There is no distinction between classes and instances.

Client-side:

Java Script is run on the client systems. Here, Java Script is run on the web browser rather than on the web server which is serving a page from the website.

Scripting Language:

A scripting language is very different from the conventional programming languages. One of the main differences is that a scripting language does not require a compiler to run the program. In a scripting language the code is interpreted as it is being loaded. This saves the time of the client.

Some of the important concepts to be kept in mind while using Java Script are

Script tags:

Script tags are used to trigger the beginning and ending of a scripting language in a HTML document. In the most basic forms, these scripting tags are seen as just any other HTML tags.

External Scripts:

External Script file is a text file that contains Java Script code. This is external script is used to run the code on a multiple pages. This is a time saving act for the client.

Variables:

A variable is used to hold value. A variable’s actual value can be altered at any point in time. Variables are used when the coder does not know the kind of values that will be used in the script. Variables can save time in writing and updating the scripts. Variables include data types such as null value, number values, Boolean values, string values, etc.

Functions:

A function can be defined as smaller script within a larger script. Functions are particularly useful for performing small tasks or a series of tasks. Functions are useful in dividing the whole script into smaller parts so that each task is handled. This makes it easier to run the whole script and debug it quickly and easily.

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## Saturday, October 8, 2011

### Types of Security Policies in Information Technology

The policies for information security must come from all corners of an organization which includes the general staff. These Security Policies are the basis for all information security planning, design and deployment. Such Security Policies should be able to provide a direction on how the issues should be handled and what are the best technologies to be used. These policies will direct how a particular software or equipment should work. This specific information is placed in the standards, procedures and practices.

The starting and the ending point of any qualitative security programs is the policy that has been taken. These security policies are very easy to decide on but they are very difficult to implement in a proper manner.

Security Policies mostly depend upon the context in which they are used. These security policies of an organization are required to protect the information assets of an organization.

Managements often propose three types of security policies. These are

Enterprise Information Security Policies

In Enterprise Information Security Policy, a direct support is given to the organization’s mission, vision and direction. This security policy will view and direct all the security efforts. The EISP on the other hand also provides a direction in the development, implementation and management of the security program and sets out the requirements that must be met by the information security framework.

Issue-specific Security Policies

In Issue-specific Security Policy, the scope and applicability of the security policy is examined. The technologies that need to be used are addressed. Authorization of user access, privacy protection, fair and responsible use of the technology is addressed. Often, the users are prohibited from using the information in a manner that can harm others.

System-specific Security Policies

System-specific Security Policies often include standards and procedures to be implemented while maintaining of systems. This security policy is also used to address the implementation and configuration of technology as well as the behavior of the people.

Information Security Blueprint

After the organization develops the information security policies and standards, the information security department will develop the blueprint for the information security program. The information security department will list all the information assets and prioritizes the threats and dangers of the organization, a risk assessment analysis is conducted. These assessments will help in the design of the security blueprint for the organization.

This security blueprint will act as the basis for the design, selection and implementation of all security program elements including policy implementation, ongoing policy management, risk management programs, education and training programs technological controls and maintenance of the security programs.

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### Information Security Principles: An understanding

A general definition of security is to being in the state of security – to be free from any kind of danger. In other words, security is protection against adversaries – from those who would harm, intentionally or otherwise. Today, we can observe the concept of security in almost every place. The most common forms of security is a unilayered or unifaceted system. But in case of organizations or the nation as such, resort to a multilayered system.

Some of the most common forms of securities that can be found in many organizations include

• Physical security
• Personnel security
• Operations security
• Communications security
• Network security
• Information security

Of the above forms of securities, information security is one of the major concerns today. Information security as defined by the Committee on National Security Systems, defines information security as the protection of information and its critical elements, including the systems and hardware that use, store and transmit that information.

Here the importance of information must be acknowledged. Information is one of the most valued assets today. It is because of the characteristics it possesses. Some of the characteristics that information possesses include availability, accuracy, authenticity, confidentiality, integrity, utility, possession, etc. Information Security Principles are framed by every organization. These Information Security Principles give out security protocols for securing information.

Information needs to be protected from unauthorized access. Information leakage can be dangerous for many organizations. Sometimes, information relating to the internal affairs of an organization are leaked. Such information may include the decision to implement a new type of cost cutting system, the financial information of the organization, the list of customers and their financial information, research and development information, information regarding a new product line, etc. Loosing such information can prove to be very costly for an organization. In case of government, key and strategic information is of utmost importance. Sometimes, information about national security can be at stake. Such information can include the list of weapons, testing of new weapons, key and strategic places where weapons are stored, etc.

All these kinds of information must be protected. This calls for information security approaches which can be implemented. This will include

Bottom-Up Approach: A Bottom-Up approach is the best suited approach for implementing a very good security system. One of the biggest advantages of this system is that the system or the network administrators who are using this system will implement a security system at the grassroot level. This can enhance the information security of the concern. The administrators who possess in-depth knowledge of the system will implement a right security system which would be apt for the organization in terms of their level of operations. In a way, they can help in customizing the security system.

Top-Down Approach: In this approach, the higher management of the organization will issue policy, procedures and processes to implement the type of security in the organization. This type of information security will have its own advantages. The top level management will consult experts before implementing any such system. Experts in the field can forecast future contingencies and will help in preparing for enhanced security procedures which will stop infiltrators from not only entering into the systems now, but also in the future. This will also mean that the information security will be constantly monitored and improvements in the same will be undertaken on a regular basis.

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## Monday, September 12, 2011

### Mergers & Acquisitions in Finance

Mergers and Acquisitions are important events in today’s business scenario. It is the phenomenon of either two or more companies coming together to form into one bigger organization or buyout of one company by another. These are business transactions in nature involving payment for each unit of stock.

A merger is a consolidation of two or more companies into one, an entirely new company. Acquisition on the other hand is the transfer of ownership and control of one company from the one group of shareholders to another. Leveraged buyout is observed in cases where a large proportion of debt is used for financing the buyout.

Types of Mergers

Mergers and Acquisitions come under three broad categories called horizontal, vertical and conglomerate mergers.

A Horizontal Merger is a merger taking place between companies belonging to one industry. The products of these companies are close substitutes.

A Vertical Merger is a merger which takes place between companies belonging to same industry, but the line of business is different. For example, a company in the telecommunications industry acquiring an internet service provider. Or a mobile phone based company acquiring a land phone based company.

A Conglomerate Merger is a type of merger in which companies which are totally unrelated coming together. For example, a company which is producing heavy engineering products acquiring a 7star chain of hotels can be considered as Conglomerate merger.

Why do companies buy other companies or two or more companies merge into one large company? The reason is that it is very easy to exercise market control when the amount of competition is reduced.

Other reasons include growing economies provide better opportunities which are best made use only through combining companies.

In an economy troubled by ever-increasing prices of raw materials, mergers and acquisitions provide economies to scale in production.

An entry into a new market can be made easier by acquiring an existing company. In this way, the expertise of the acquired company and the capital from the acquiring company can produce a new product whose cost can be very low when compared to other products in the market.

With the above advantages, mergers and acquisitions take place in an economy, which can give a different shape to the industry.

### Working Capital Management in Finance

Working Capital Management is yet another important short-term concept. Working Capital, as the name suggests is that capital which is required to run the day to day activities of a firm. These include the day to day operations such as buying of raw materials, maintenance of stock, producing the goods and selling these products.

Net working capital = current assets – current liabilities

Net operating working capital = current assets – non-interest bearing current liabilities

Equity working capital = current assets – current liabilities – long-term debt

All these activities require money. For some expenses, credit is provided and for some expenses, cash is to be paid without any delays. All these expenses have to be met for selling the goods at hand. Only after the goods have been sold, that the company can realize revenues and eventually profits. Until, that time, the company will have to bear the expenses.

The above mentioned raw materials, inventory, goods-in-progress, debtors and finished goods are all current assets. These current assets are meant to be realized within a maximum time of one year. Here cash flows of a company are the deciding factor in the working capital.

Working capital Management and Requirements differ from industry to industry and from company to company. Keeping the industry norms as a standard, a company will have to decide its own working capital range depending upon its scale of operations.

For industries where the concentration is more in producing goods, the investment in long-term assets such as plant and machinery is much greater in comparison to the current assets such as raw materials, creditors or debtors and other current assets and liabilities.

In companies which are into retail businesses, the investment in current assets and liabilities is much greater in comparison to the long-term assets such as land and buildings.

Firms on the other hand will also have to maintain a certain amount of cash on a daily basis. The degree of uncertainty in the future requirement of cash is one of the reasons for this.

### Dividend Policy Assignment Help in Finance

Dividends are those earnings which are distributed among stockholders of a company. These earnings are paid either in cash or in stock, generally on a quarterly basis and may be paid only out of retained earnings, not from invested capital. Dividends are only paid when the company’s profitability can support this payout. The more and regular the company’s profitability, the regular the payment of dividends. The amount of dividend paid for each share depends on the organization’s policy towards them. Organizations are not obligated legally to pay dividends, but to keep the investors interested in the organization, the management pays out dividend, though the percentage of dividends per share can differ from year to year, as it depends on the profitability of the company.

There are other factors also which decide the payment of dividend in the company. These include corporate growth rate, restrictive covenants, earnings stability, degree of debt and tax factors.

Dividend Policy

Dividend Policy is important in addressing certain factors such as:

Influences the investors’ decisions: General public which wants to invest in an organization will look for two factors, the profitability of the company and the overall growth rate of the company. Profitability will determine the company’s dividend payout ratio and of course growth rate of the company is also an important factor. So, a company seeking good investor support shall have to decide a dividend policy which can keep the investors happy.

Impact on finance program and capital budget of a company: Dividend policy is one of the factors influencing a company’s finance and capital budget. The profits of a company pertaining to a quarter or a year are generally taken into consideration. These profits are either saved as retained earnings or they can be paid out. Retained earnings are good source of generating internal finance. A company cannot in many circumstances save 100% of the profits or payout 100% of the profits as dividends. Many a times, it needs to strike a balance between dividend payout ratio and retained earnings ratio. The percentages can be 50: 50, 60:40, 70:30, etc.

A company cannot afford paying out high dividend rates every year. Instead, it can adopt a low dividend payout ratio which can be helpful during the years of low earnings as well.

High dividend ratio will affect the cash flow of the company. Companies with poor liquidity ratio cannot payout dividends because of less availability of cash.

High dividend ratio will decrease the stockholders’ equity, since dividends are paid from retained earnings. The result is higher debt to equity ratio.

## Friday, September 9, 2011

### Skin and its functions Assignment Help

Skin is the largest single organ in the body, which serves three major functions such as, to protect the body in the environment, to regulate the temperature of the body and to transmit information from the environment to the brain. There are numerous protective functions of the skin. Over 70% of the body is composed of water. The water contains a delicate balance of chemical substances in solution. The skin watertight and serves to keep this balanced internal solution intact. The skin also protects the body from the invasion of infectious organisms, bacteria, viruses and fungi. These organisms are everywhere and are routinely found lying on the skin surface and deep in its grooves and glands. However, they never penetrate the skin unless it is broken by injury. Thus, the skin provides a constant protection against outside invaders.

The energy of the body is derived from metabolism or chemical reactions that take place within a very narrow temperature range. If the body temperature is too low, these reactions cannot proceed, metabolism ceases and the body dies. If the temperature becomes too high, the rate of metabolism increases. Dangerously high temperatures producing too high a metabolic rate can result in permanent tissue damage and death.

Skin and its Functions

The major organ for regulation of body temperature is the skin. Blood vessels in the skin constrict when the body is in a cold environment and dilate when the body is in a warm environment. In a cold environment, constriction of the blood vessels shunts the blood away from the skin to decrease the amount of heat radiated from the body surface. When the outside environment is hot, the vessels in the skin dilate, the skin becomes flushed or red and heat radiates from the body surface.

Also, in the hot environment, sweat is secreted to the skin surface from the sweat glands. Evaporation of the sweat requires energy. This energy, as body heat is taken from the body during the evaporation process, which causes the body temperature to fall. Sweating alone will not reduce body temperature, evaporation of the sweat must also occur.

Information from the environment is carried to the brain through a rich supply of sensory nerves that originates in the skin. Nerve endings that lie in the skin are adapted to perceive and transmit information about heat, cold, external pressure, pain and the position of the body in space. The skin thus recognizes any changes in the environment. The skin also reacts to pressure, pain and pleasurable stimuli.

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### Respiratory Failure and Respiratory Arrest Assignment Help

Respiratory Failure and Respiratory Arrest or cardiac arrest is the most frequent pediatric pre-hospital medical problem. Of all conditions causing respiratory disease in children, asthma is the most common. Many other illnesses such as, foreign bodies and trauma can cause respiratory problems in children. Good estimation and early intervention for pediatric respiratory problems can avert serious illness and preventable death and may shorten treatment time in the emergency department.

It is necessary to focus on certain key physical signs and symptoms will allow the pre-hospital professional to rapidly assess the effectiveness of gas exchange in the airways and lung alveoli. Using PAT (Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia) is a first and important step in determining the severity of the disease, localizing the physiologic problem and beginning treatment. Appearance reflects the overall state of ventilation and oxygenation. Increased work of breathing indicates either airway obstruction at some level or a problem in gas exchange at the alveolar level. It is often an early sign of hypoxia or hypercapnia. Fading respiratory effort is a sign of severe hypoxia or hypercapnia. Cyanosis of the skin or mucous membranes also indicates severe hypoxia.

The initial assessment includes counting the respiratory rate, performing hands-on chest auscultation and obtaining pulse oximetry. This assessment not only provides a picture of respiratory function, but also helps prioritize general and specific treatments as well as invasive and timing of transport.

Respiratory Failure

Respiratory failure occurs when the infant or child exhausts his energy reserves or can no longer maintain oxygenation and ventilation. When the effects of the respiratory insult begin to overwhelm the child’s ability to respond, she begins to decompensate. Respiratory failure may occur when chest wall muscles get tired after a long period of increased work of breathing. An abnormal appearance or cyanosis in a child with an increased work of breathing indicates probable respiratory failure. An abnormally low respiratory rate and decreased respiratory effort, usually with bradycardia, also indicates probable respiratory failure. Respiratory failure must be treated immediately to restore good oxygenation and ventilation and to prevent respiratory arrest.

Respiratory Arrest

Respiratory arrest means absence of effective breathing. If ventilation and oxygenation are not immediately supported, respiratory arrest will rapidly progress to full cardiopulmonary arrest. Most episodes of cardiac arrest in pediatric patients begin as respiratory arrest. Intervening at this point will often prevent cardiac arrest. Early intervention in respiratory failure and arrest will have a far better chance of producing neurologically intact survivors than treatment of full blown cardiac arrest, which has an extremely low probability of survival.

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### Motivation At Workplace: An Introduction

Motivation At Workplace is one of the primary ways through which employees are engaged effectively and efficiently within an organization for the accomplishment of its goals. Many of the human resource activities are directed towards increasing the productivity of employees. Many techniques for motivation at workplace are used by the human resources department in accordance with the other departments.

The need for motivation

In order to understand motivation clearly, we must understand the relationship between motivation and performance. Looking closely at performance, we can observe that performance is what the people do rather than the results of their work. It is a multi-dimensional concept where the in-role and extra-role of each employee is also counted. Motivation at workplace is the willingness of an employee to perform the job assigned to him. Motivation concerns the arousal, direction and persistence of an employee to perform the job that has been assigned.

Douglas McGregor was one of the first proponents of Motivation at workplace. He wrote about different human behaviors. These were clearly explained in his theories of X and Y. Theory X represents those people who are lazy, who avoid taking responsibilities and who have to be threatened to make them work. And Theory Y represents those people who are naturally inclined to work.

A detailed view of both these theories will reveal their differences.

 Theory X Theory Y People are lazy People are active and like to work People need to be controlled and coordinated People are self-controlled and self-coordinated People need motivation to work People do not need external motivation as they are self-motivated People are not very smart People are smart People need encouragement to do a good work People want to do a good work naturally

Both the theories in action

It is a known fact that people behave as per their opinions and opinions are based on personal experiences. In motivation theories also, the same can be observed. McGregor points that managers can be categorized as Theory X managers and Theory Y managers.

Managers under Theory X believe that people are generally lazy and they need to be motivated. The motivation can be either positive motivation or negative motivation. Positive motivation includes presenting awards or incentives for outstanding performances, whereas negative motivation includes instilling fear in employees. Employees are threatened of firing from their jobs because of lack of performance. The manager does not generally trust the employees and thinks that the employees do not take responsibility. The instances of Theory X can be seen in almost every place or every organization.

Managers in Theory Y on the other hand believe that people are naturally motivated to do their work and they do not require any kind of motivation and supervision. Managers under this theory assign responsibilities to their subordinates and find that the work is done without any delays. Employees are never threatened of firing from their jobs by the managers as there is no such complaint against people under theory Y of lack of performance. People under Theory Y are also self-motivated, smart and they know to do their work in the most efficient way and in the least time possible.

In today’s business and corporate world, when we look internally in an organization we can observe that both theory X and Y exist. These theories are found in almost all organizations. But, it is seldom found that an organization exclusively has Theory X people and another organization has Theory Y people exclusively. Theory X and Y people are scattered among the population and it is hard to pinpoint them.

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These are some of our previous articles on Human Resources which include Human Resources – The new role, Human Resources Time Management, Recruitments & Selection Strategies, Compensation & Rewards