In organizations people develop in terms of numbers, but a successful organization is the one where proper training is imparted to their employees. This training is of two types. One is short-term training. And the other is long-term training. Short-term training is mainly focused on the job that has to be done and performance concerns. And the long-term training is about the development of the individual as well as the organization in terms of broadening the skills for future responsibilities.
The Phases in Training and Development:
- Phase 1 Needs Assessment: An assessment about the organization, the task and the persons must take place in this phase. At the organization level, an examination of the environment, strategies and resources of the organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed. Task analysis should determine what content of a training program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job. Person Analysis involves the determination of specific individuals who need training.
- Phase 2 Program Design: The training program design is based on instructional objectives, trainee readiness and motivation, principles of learning and characteristics of successful trainers. Instructional objectives represent the desired outcomes of a training program. Trainee readiness requires motivation using positive reinforcement. Eliminate threats and punishments. Being flexible. Designing interesting instruction and breaking down physical and psychological obstacles to learning. Principles of learning involve feedback and reinforcement. These include spot rewards and behavior modification.
- Phase 3 Implementation: The implementation phase is the biggest phase of all where the actual training is imparted to the employee. This phase requires choosing an instructional method. This involves the nature of training, types of trainees, organizational extent of training and importance of training outcomes. Training methods for managerial and non-managerial employees differ.
- Phase 4 Evaluation: The last phase is about the evaluation of results. Measuring the utility of training programs include calculating the benefits that are derived from training, quality improvement and contribution to profits. Reduction in turnover and waste, Increases productivity and cost reduction are seen. Viewing training in terms of the extent to which it provides knowledge and skills that create a competitive advantage and a culture that is ready for a continuous change.
Special Training and Development programs:
Organization wide training programs:
- These include Orientation training, Basic skills training, Team and cross training and diversity training.
- Orientation training is a formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs and their work units.
- Basic skills training has become an essential occupational qualifications, having profound implications for product quality, customer service, internal efficiency and workplace and environmental safety.
- Team/ Cross training is a difficult and comprehensive process. Team development is not always linear sequence of ‘forming, storming, norming and performing’. Additional training is required to assimilate new members. Behavioral and process skills need to be acquired through participative exercises.
- Diversity training helps in awareness building. It helps employees appreciate the benefits of diversity. It provides employees with skills necessary for working with people who are different from them.
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