Tuesday, April 2, 2013
World Autism Awareness day
Saturday, February 4, 2012
Friday, January 20, 2012
In most of today’s enterprises, we can observe that there are many hundreds of applications, each application being different from other application in one way or the other. Most of these applications are developed by third party. For a standard to be evolved, all these applications must be integrated for easy communication between different departments using different applications.
There is a need for standardizing business applications because even well established ERP applications have not been able to provide all the functions in an enterprise. Instead of using just one application, using multiple applications will give an option of using the best applications in different categories which can improve the productivity of the business. But maintaining several applications simultaneously can be difficult for any enterprise. So, there is a need for enterprise integration. While pursuing enterprise integration, there are issues such as multiple applications being run on multiple operating system platforms. Enterprise integration help can availed by applying certain principles.
XML, web services and SOA or Service Oriented Architecture were introduced to do the job of enterprise integration. Enterprise integration with XML, web services and SOA has been successful to a significant extent after they were introduced. Their introduction has been pioneered as a very important step toward enterprise integration.
Back in the year 2003, a concern about the Microsoft monopolizing on the transfer of computer documents. So, internationally there was a concern to create a language that could easily and quickly help in transfer of documents. Thus, XML was developed.
XML is closely related to HTML. However, there are differences between the two. Where HTML’s majority of focus rests on presentation, XML’s major focus is on providing information content. XML is an extensible language, where as HTML is not.
Service Oriented Architecture and Web Services on the other hand have also been useful in integrating enterprises. Before they are implemented, Service Oriented Architecture and web services must be understood. The process of building Service Oriented Architecture and web services must be initiated.
Web Services, if they are integrated well with the service orientation can answer well the challenge of enterprise integration. With the help of web services, not only integration is possible, but also an ERP application can be developed.
Service orientation has features such as
- Minimal dependence on other services is required. Only an awareness of other services is required.
- The service architecture is encapsulated and it can control its own logic.
- Service orientation can be reused
- Additional services can be added to them from time to time
With Service orientation the following advantages can be realized
- Improvement in integration and interoperability
- Can be reused inherently
- Architecture and solutions are streamlined
- XML standardization is possible
- Better alternative to standard ERP solutions
Integration of enterprise with XML, web services and SOA has been proven to be successful in many organizations. Today, these organizations have been able to reduce costs to a significant level.
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Wednesday, December 14, 2011
The Pareto Chart: The Pareto chart can also be known as, the Pareto diagram. There can be two types of Pareto Charts such as, a weighted Pareto chart or a comparative Pareto Chart. A Pareto chart is a special bar graph, where the lengths are represented by frequency or cost, time or money that are arranged with the longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right side. Thus, a chart visually exhibits the relative importance of problems or conditions.
Here are the few steps involved in constructing a Pareto Chart:
· The problem to be analyzed is defined and to identify the different potential causes.
· Decide which criterion to use when comparing the possible causes such as, how often the different causes occur, their consequences or costs.
· Define the time interval during which data will be collected and carry out the data collection for the selected criterion.
· Place the causes from left to right on the horizontal axis of the chart, in descending relative importance. Rectangle lines are drawn to represent the heights.
· It is necessary to mark the data value on the left vertical axis and the percentage value on the right and a curve of cumulative is drawn along the top edges of the rectangles.
An illustration is given below to explain the use of a Pareto Chart:
This illustration explains how a Pareto Chart works. Many studios around the world make televisions commercials. One studio specialized in shooting ads starring cats. Lately, many factors took place for the delay of the commercial such as, lack of equipment, technical problems with audio and video, rework of scripts and misbehaving cats.
Causes of Cat distress Time lost due to the cause Total time lost due to the cause
Not been fed 4, 3, 5, 2, 5, 3 22
Not been cuddled 3, 3, 5, 3 14
Studio too cold 9, 2, 4, 6, 4, 5 30
Too much noise 20, 15, 35, 20, 9, 16 115
Smell of previous cat still present 41, 68, 39, 60, 29, 52, 19, 8 316
Surface to sit/lie on not appealing 2, 4, 1 7
The above given details can also be explained with a graphical example.
Time lost (Minutes) Cumulative % time lost
Tuesday, December 13, 2011
In the subject of Economics, Supply and Demand play an important role. In Economics Tax effect on Supply and Demand can be significant. Taxes on goods and services can determine their cost and in turn their demand and supply.
Definition of Tax effect:
The primary reasons for any tax is to raise income or revenue from tax payers for the taxing authority as, to impose economic burden on those tax payers to alter the distribution or allocation of resources in the affected markets. By changing the distribution of resources that is the quantities produced and consumed, where a tax can also affect the economic efficiency with which the resources are employed. As a result, the analysis and consequences of tax consists of revenue, resource allocation, income distribution and economic efficiency. In case, if a tax is raised on a particular market, the direct effects can be examined in that market. Whereas, it’s indirect effects can cause an issue to other related markets.
The effect of Tax on a good:
Tax on a good is added to the marginal cost of seller of the goods. An illustration can explain the shift supply and demand curve. $1 of tax on one gallon diesel fuel will change the supply curve due to the amount of tax. The shifts in the supply curve, the equilibrium of price and quantity will also change because of tax. Eventually the impact on quantity and price will depend on the price elasticity’s of demand and supply.
In the above illustrated figure shows elasticity of demand and supply determine the impact of the tax. Here, the curve shifts upwards due to the amount of the tax. So, the equilibrium quantity falls and the equilibrium prices rises because of the tax. The decrease in the equilibrium of quantity creates a loss of consumer surplus and also producers’ surplus, which is known as deadweight loss from the tax. The size of the deadweight loss and the relative size of the impact on the price and quantity are varied. As, a result the supply curve and the demand curve have different price elasticity.
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Thursday, October 27, 2011
When a business is started, an investment is made into the firm in areas such as machinery, land, inventory and other assets. By investing in these assets, the business wants to produce a value, a product or a service to sell it to the end users for a profit.
When we look at the financial side of the business and its activities, we can understand that the assets of the firm are put on the right hand side and the liabilities are put on the left hand side. The assets and liabilities must match in figures. When we look closely at the assets and liabilities, we can see that assets include machinery, land and buildings, inventory, patents, trademarks, investments, debtors, etc.
On the other hand, if we look at the liabilities side of the balance sheet, we can find share capital, long term liabilities such as bank loans, term loans, debentures and short term liabilities or current liabilities such as creditors, bills payable, expenses to be paid, etc. This is the capital structure of a firm.
The firm, in order to make profits, the firm must create more cash flow than it uses. In other words, the cash coming in from the various activities must be more than the money invested by the firm. This increase in the cash flow over a period of time is called profit, which is usually calculated over one year, half year or a quarter of a year.
In order to generate more profits, the firm can take up what is called cost reduction. In cost reduction, by using new machinery, or new ways of production, the firm tries to reduce the cost of production to the extent possible. Cost reduction is considered to be one of the best techniques for profit maximization.
Another way that firms can increase their profits is through producing in bulk quantities. When produced in bulk quantities, the firm will experience a decreased cost on individual product produced. So, the decrease in cost of production without the proportional decrease in price will increase the profit of the firm.
In order that cost reduction and increased production takes place, a firm must utilize highly economic ways of production such as utilization of efficient techniques in production and procurement of materials in bulk from suppliers, etc. All these techniques are known to decrease the cost of production and increase the profitability of the firm.
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Electromagnetism is one of the fundamental phenomenon in nature. It is responsible for almost all the phenomena in our daily life. Electromagnetism spans both electric fields and magnetic fields. When observed individually, electricity and magnetism behave differently and when unified, we can observe that both are interdependent on each other and they cannot be separated from each other.
In order to fully understand Electromagnetism, we have to look at the four laws that govern electricity and magnetism. These are Gauss’s laws in Electrostatics, Gauss’s law in Magnetism, Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law. These laws were combined by James Clerk Maxwell in the year 1864 to give a complete set of relation and connection between both the forces of electricity and magnetism.
Gauss’s law in Electrostatics
The electric flux through any closed surface is proportional to the enclosed electric charge.
Take an example of an electric field, a plane surface area and a normal unit vector at an angle in co-ordination with the electric field, then the resultant electric flux is considered as a scalar product. This defines electric flux as volt multiplied by meter.
Gauss’s law in Magnetism
The magnetic field has divergence equal to that of zero.
Gauss’s law can be applied to a magnetic flux through a closed surface. As magnetic field lines are looped in circles, The magnetic field lines are all looped for all closed surfaces. Hence a closed surface exhibits zero magnetic flux.
The line integral of magnetic field intensity H about any closed path is exactly equal to the net current enclosed by that path.
The only dependant in Ampere’s law is the current that is flowing through the wire and not the diameter of the wire. The magnetic field is dependant on the current that is enclosed in the loop of the wire.
The induced electromotive force (EMF) in any closed circuit is equal to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit.
The law states that independent of the change in the induced magnetic force, voltage will be generated. This can be either the change in the magnetic field or by a magnet moving toward or away from the coil of wire or moving the coil toward or away from the magnetic field will produce voltage.
These four laws are primary to the functioning of the modern electric system. Ampere’s law is useful in the production and maintenance of transformers. Faraday’s law is useful in the production of power. Without these laws, the concept of power production and power distribution would not have been possible.
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