Law is a system of rules generally enforced through a set of institutions. For the smooth functioning of society, politics, economics there must be a set of rules or laws which tell how things have to be conducted accordingly. The basic principle of Law is that all people are entitled to justice, no one is above the law and the rules laid down should not cause and inconvenience to the large number of people.
The Institutions that frame, amend, execute, uphold and protect the law are the Legislature, Executive and the Judiciary. The Legislature is the place where new laws are framed, old laws are amended according to the present situations. The House of Lords and the House of Commons in England, The Senate in the United States are the best examples. The Executive is that part of the legal system where the enacted laws are executed properly. All the Government Institutions come under this category. The Judiciary is the final pillar in this three-tier system. The Judiciary is the place where the laws are interpreted and upheld. The Supreme Court and other smaller courts are the example.
During the medieval period, there was no significant difference between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. The King was the legislature as he used to make laws, the king’s men used to execute them, and the King himself was the judiciary as he used to decide whether something was right or not. During the period, the Church got involved in the political scenario so much so that, the clergymen used to interfere with the smooth functioning of the legal system. So, clearly a new system had to evolve. And with the rise of democracy and the downfall of the monarchy started in the Europe and the rapid colonization of the Americas, the Africa, the Asia and the Australia, many newly formed nations decided to separate the legal system and the present three-tier system of separate Legislature, Executive and the Judiciary came into being.
The present legal system in many democratic as well as monarchial nations, aspects that are covered are: Constitutional and Administrative Law; Criminal Law; Contract Law; Property Law; Equity and Trusts; Labor Law; Human Rights; Civil Procedure and Criminal Procedure; Social Security Law; Family Law; Company Law; Commercial Law; Intellectual Property; Tax Law; Banking Law; Consumer Law; Environmental Law and many more.
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