Molecular Biology is a highly regarded branch in Biology as it deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. The field extends its study into subjects such as biochemistry and genetics. The various chemical processes inside an animal or an insect particularly in a cell are the subject of study in molecular biology. Various experiments during the 19th century led to the discovery of DNA and RNA inside the nucleus in a cell.
The various subjects of study and research include
Biochemistry: Biochemistry is the study of the chemical substances and vital processes that occur in living organisms. The role of various chemicals especially organic chemicals, regular chemicals and their influence on living organisms are studied under biochemistry.
Genetics: Genetics can be regarded as an extension of Biochemistry in one sense. The study of genetics began when the study of a cell began. But, it took a turn when the chemicals inside of the nucleus were found to be acidic in nature. Further experiments led to the discovery of DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA or Ribonucleic acid. Interest in genetics is driving further research because the study of DNA and RNA will reveal the characteristics of an organism. Further the information about life is imprinted on DNA which scientists say, needed to be decoded. The research has given rise to another subject called Genetic Engineering in which the structure of a DNA is manipulated to bring drastic results in the characteristics in life. A good example is the genetic engineering in the field of agriculture has drastically improved production of food grains.
The discovery of double helix structure proved to be one of the greatest discoveries in Biology and laid the foundations for the bridge between genetics and biochemistry.
A typical example of molecular biological mechanism is the mechanism of DNA replication. DNA is a nucleic acid composed of several subparts: a sugar-phosphate backbone and nuclei acid bases. Nucleic acids and proteins are among working entities of molecular biological and biochemical mechanisms such as DNA replication and protein synthesis. When DNA unwinds, the bases exhibit weak charges, properties that result from slight asymmetries in the molecules. These weak charges allow a DNA base and its component to engage in the activity of forming hydrogen chemical bonds; these weak charges allow a DNA base and polar charges in the subparts of the base. Ultimately, entities with polar charges enable the activity of hydrogen bond formation.
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